A large study of the existing research has shown incremental improvements in patient outcomes and productivity without significant employment changes.
It’s not difficult to see how information technology (IT) could improve healthcare services. Fast messaging is replacing faxes. Access to electronic health records is easier. Software that informs doctors’ decisions. Telemedicine makes healthcare more flexible. There are endless possibilities.
Health Care Workers
We have seen in other industries that it takes time [to learn how to use IT] best. The path to better health care seems to be moving in that direction.
Annual Review of Economics published the paper “The Impact of Health Information and Communication Technology On Clinical Quality, Productivity and Workers” as part of its August issue.
Ari Bronsoler PhD ’22 is a recent doctoral student in economics at MIT. Dr jay feldman of Management and Applied Economics at the MIT Sloan School of Management. John Van Reenen is a digital fellow at MIT’s Initiative for the Digital Economy and the Ronald Coase School professor at the London School of Economics.
This paper is a comprehensive review of 975 academic papers on technology and healthcare services. Doyle, a prominent health economist, has conducted quasi-experimental studies showing the impact of higher health care spending. It aims to better understand the impact of innovation on jobs. Understanding the impact of high-tech tools on this sector is essential, as 18% of the U.S.
Electronic health records are one aspect of healthcare that has experienced significant IT-based changes. These records enable more effortless information flow among providers and facilitate the use of clinical decision support tools, software that aids doctors in making informed decisions.
A review of the evidence suggests that the industry has not done the same for other types of applications like decision-support software. Patient-safety concerns could be one reason.
Doyle says that there is risk aversion in people’s health. “You [medical professionals] don’t want to make a mistake.
As organizations move to IT, it is easy to see why IT adoption in healthcare would take longer.
In 2018, a review of 37 studies revealed positive effects from IT in 30 cases. Seven studies had no apparent effect, and none had adverse effects.
In 1990, the U.S. had 8 million health workers, which accounted for 7 per cent of all jobs. Today, the U.S. has 16 million health workers, accounting for 11% of all jobs. There has been a slight decline in the number of medical and clerical employees, which fell from 16 percent and 13 percent to 13% of the total health care workforce.
Doyle states, “we don’t yet see a major shock in the labour market.” These digital tools are mainly supportive for workers and not replacements. In economics, they are complements and not replacements.
Is tech going to lower our bills?
He points out that this trend depends on patients’ wishes outside of acute pandemic stages. “People have begun interacting with their doctors [on video] for routine matters.” You still need to visit the Dr jay feldman.
Doyle points out that even tele medicine adoption is dependent on its cost.
He says that every phone call is now a virtual visit. Payers [insurers] are currently negotiating how to pay for this in a way that encourages adoption but doesn’t break your bank.
Bronsoler and Doyle are working together to study the impact of U.S. privacy laws on information sharing and electronic health records use. He says that technology’s impact on health care is essential in all areas.
The MIT Work of the Future Task Force and the U.K. Economic and Social Research Council provided funding through their Programme On Innovation and Diffusion.
Complements to the job, not substitutes, so far
Patient outcomes also seem to be helped by IT, but with effects that vary. Examining other literature reviews of specific studies, the authors note that a 2011 survey found 60 percent of studies showed better patient outcomes associated with greater IT use, no effect in 30 percent of studies, and a negative association in 10 percent of studies. A 2018 review of 37 studies found positive effects from IT in 30 cases, 7 studies with no clear effect, and none with negative effects.
Science and PE lessons, as well initiatives such as healthy-eating weeks and walk-to-school days form part of a curriculum that successfully teaches how to look after your physical health. And physical health is an important factor in maintaining mental health, but education on self-care, social skills and resilience, though just as important, is often overlooked.
In February this year, St John Ambulance ran a focus group with headteachers, teachers, and teaching assistants. The research explored the different types of support staff receive to deal with their pupils’ mental health as well as how the curriculum supports young people. While many encouragingly reported that their schools offered wellbeing toolkits and resources, many said staff were not offered mental health training.
This lack of training directly impacts young people. According to research from mental health charity, Mind published in June this year, 96 per cent of pupils have felt their school work had been affected by their mental health. Yet two-thirds said they received no mental health support from their school.
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